Game elements are the toolbox for gamification and can be combined in different ways to build up any game. The number of game elements that can be used are extensive. The well-known points, badges and leaderboards are just the beginning and quests, the storyline, collaboration and onboarding (which helps the player who is a novice into the game in a systematic way) are just some examples of game elements that are often used.
When designing gamification the most relevant and effective game elements are selected depending on the type of players. Per design has to be determined which elements have the greatest impact and elicit the desired behavior based on the objectives that are set.